There are 2 types of Lupin; the narrow leaf species (Lupinus angustifolius) and the larger seeded and broader leaf Lupinus albus. The latter is generally produced for human consumption, whilst the higher protein narrow leaf lupin is better placed as stock feed.
For healthy high yielding crops it is important to have seed tested for seed borne diseases. If seed is coming from WA or SA it must be tested for Lupin anthracnose, a disease caused by fungal infection (resulting in deformed growth) which only occurs in these two states of Australia.
Even though many of the newer varieties of lupin have better disease resistance (see table below), it is still a good idea to have seed tested for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Anthracnose.
If a paddock has a history of lupin disease it may be best to rest or sow a different crop, allowing the disease to die back. With good quality seed and favourable conditions, lupin is a productive rotational crop option.
Mice infestations can be a big issue for farmers, with both the sowing and flowering stages targeted as a food source.
Lupins don’t tolerate free lime (up to 4%) and will grow poorly on hard setting or shallow (< 25cm) soils. The narrow-leaf varieties are suited to acid (as low as pH 4) sandy to sand over clay soils and well structured loam soils.
Direct drilling seed is a best practice, with hard setting heavier soils sown shallower and looser sandy soils deeper, optimum sowing depths are between 10 cm and 30 cm.
When sowing lupin crops try to achieve between 45 - 60 plants per m2 or, 75 – 100 kg a hectare. It is important to remember that albus is a larger seed and therefore will need to be sown at a higher rate (160 kg a hectare). The narrow leaf variety is well suited to acid sandy soils with the angustoflius preferring the wider range from sandy to well-structured loams.
Reference: LUPINS in South Australia & Victoria
Sowing rate = (seed size g/ 1000 seeds) x target density (plants / m2) x 100
Germination (%) x Establishment rate (%)
See the Winter Crop Summary for the latest Lupin time of sowing guide.
Lupins prefer moderate temperatures and rainfall, they are not tolerant of frost and large losses of flowers can occur if frost is serve enough or ongoing. They like moderate temperatures, too many days over 30o C will also see flowers drop.
Manganese, phosphorous and nitrogen (& minor elements zinc and sulphur) will assist crops to reach their potential. As all soils vary, it is important to conduct pre-sowing soil tests to work out application rates. Manganese deficiencies can result in split seed disorder, this can be prevented by applying manganese to the soil (direct drill with seed) or via foliar spray when pods on the main stem are 2 to 3 cm long and the secondary stems have nearly finished flowering.
Red-legged earthmite (Halotydeus destructor) is a black-bodied mite with red legs; it damages seedlings as they emerge.
Lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis) is a small (2.5 mm), wingless, light green hopping insect. It chews through leaves in layers resulting in “window-pane” like holes.
Native budworm (Heliothis punctiger). The caterpillar damages maturing seed in pods during the flowering and podding stage of plant growth.
Brown leaf spot (Pleiochaeta setosa) has small web like spots on leaves and pods. Infected leaves drop off, lesions may girdle stems
Pleiochaeta root rot (Pleiochaeta setosa) Browning and rotting of tap and lateral roots, seeding plant death.
Cucumber Mosaic Virus causes bunching and stunted growth; they have few pods and remain green while other plants are browning off
See the Winter Crop Summary for the latest Lupin disease resistance table.
Harvesting should occur when moisture levels are 14 per cent and the crop is mature (pods brown, seed yellow). If putting stock onto the stubble it is recommended to do so shortly after harvest (to avoid stem rot and fungus from rains).
Harvest is where high pod loss can occur, so speak to your agronomist about header settings for your particular variety (open front or conventional headers can be used).
Lupin roots can grow down to 2.5 metres, the rhizobium is required for nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Once nodulation occurs in acid soils, inoculation will not be required for the next five years.
CMV and anthracnose are tested as the amount of pathogen DNA in a standard sample size. Testing can be facilitated by commercial grain testing businesses.
Sampling seed is best done soon after harvest by taking samples as the seed streams from the header to the holding bin or when it is transferred to the silo. A small bucket or bag can be passed through the stream at several different times during transfer, then mixed together and sub-sampled to the laboratories required weight.
Ware, A (2011). Sowing Guide 2011 – Lupin variety sowing guide 2011. Government of South Australia, SARDI, & SAGIT.
DPI, SARDI (2000) Lupins in South Australia and Victoria. Retrieved 4/4/2011 from http://www.pulseaus.com.au/Lupin.aspx
Department of Agriculture and Food (WA) , ( ) Lupin Essentials series. Retrieved 11/4/2011 from http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/PC_93319.html